Strategia ograniczania żądań płacowych

Obecnie w dyskusjach ekonomistów i polityków promowana jest strategia ograniczania żądań płacowych w celu stworzenia nowych miejsc pracy dla bezrobotnych (ang. age restraint lub wage moderation niern. Lohnzuriickhaltung). Równocześnie wyrażane są obawy, że uruchomi to mechanizm konkurencji po-

przez obniżkę płac. Nasuwają się pytania jakie jest uzasadnienie hipotezy o konkurencji poprzez obniżkę płac i czy ten scenariusz będzie realizowany w przyszłości w Europie?

Jeśli rozpatrujemy konkurencję przez obniżkę płac na obszarze unii walutowej, to oznacza to, iż jeden kraj uzyskuje przewagę konkurencyjną na rynku towarowym kosztem innych państw . Wskazuje to również, że kraj osiągający korzyści ma wolniejsze tempo wzrostu płac niż produktywności. W tej sytuacji spadają koszty płac na jednostkę produkcji, następnie dochodzi do obniżki kosztów produkcji i cen produktów krajowych, co – przy danych nominalnych kursach wymiennych – powoduje poprawę pozycji konkurencyjnej danego kraju lub regionu. Jeśli przewagę konkurencyjną zdobywa region o dużym bezrobociu, to przez rozszerzenie produkcji eksportowej może on osiągnąć pozytywne efekty zatrudnieniowe. Z punktu widzenia kraju realizującego tę strategię jest ona oceniana pozytywnie. Spadające ceny przyczyniają się – z pewnym opóźnieniem – do wzrostu płacy realnej, w tym czasie powstają dodatkowe miejsca pracy i zdobyte zostają nowe rynki zbytu. Uzyskuje się pozytywne efekty w dziedzinie wzrostu gospodarczego i poprawia się sytuacja na rynku pracy. Pozytywny efekt alokacyjny w kraju realizującym powściągliwą politykę płacową powstaje kosztem zagranicy: nowe rynki zbytu i dodatkowe miejsca pracy tworzą się w wyniku eksportu bezrobocia do innych państw . To oddziaływanie na inne kraje jest tym większe, im większe znaczenie gospodarcze ma kraj konkurujący przez obniżkę płac.

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